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Saturday, November 28, 2009

Suicide Bombing

Saturday, November 28, 2009 - by IslamGreatReligion · - 0 Comments

Suicide Bombing

Al-Nisa (The Women) Sura 4: Verse 29 (Partial)

"... And kill yourselves not, for God is truly Merciful to you."

People who are driven to despair are thus reminded to have faith in God's mercy in the hope that they may be relieved of their suffering. Since suicide is prohibited, anyone who tries to facilitate it, or acts as an accomplice, is also liable to a deterrent punishment that may be quantified by the court while taking into consideration the material circumstances of the case. Commentators have, moreover, drawn a five-point conclusion from this verse as follows:

1. the obvious meaning is that suicide is forbidden;
2. the text also stipulates that 'you may not kill one another' nor facilitate suicide;
3. one may not undertake a task which is likely to cause his own death, even if it be in lieu of a religious obligation;
4. no one should deprive himself of the necessities of life to the point of self-destruction; and
5. the text covers cases of self-destruction regardless of the manner in which it is done.

The manuals of Islamic law are silent on the issue of suicide bombing, a disturbing phenomenon of our time that became frequent in connection with Israeli-Palestinian conflict, especially when Israel unleashed a new wave of aggression on the street processions of unarmed Palestinian youth in 2000-1. The aftermath of 11 September 2001 and more recently the horrendous violence in Iraq and Afghanistan, added new dimensions to the incidence of suicide bombing among Muslims.

Suicide bombing in the name of Islam is a 'sociopolitical phenomenon, not a theological one'. And any long-term solution to the problem must also address the causes that have brought so much pain and hopelessness to many Muslim societies.

It would be simplistic to lump the Palestinian suicide bombing with Al-Qaedah terrorist activities. One can hardly deny the genuine suffering of the Palestinian people and legitimacy of their struggle against sustained Israeli brutalities. It would appear equally simplistic, however, to equate suicide bombing with martyrdom and jihad. This is because suicide bombing contravenes two fundamental principles of Islam: prohibition against suicide, and deliberate killing of non-combatants. The argument that proceeds over reciprocity and retaliation is also flawed by the involvement of innocent non-combatants in suicide bombing.

Those who have raised the issue of 'collateral damage' in this context have also exaggerated their case, simply because non-combatants are chosen as the direct target of suicide bombing. They are, as such, neither collateral nor incidental.

The Muslim fighter who is motivated by the spirit of jihad enters the battle, not with the intention of dying, but with the conviction that if he should die, it would be for reasons beyond his control. Martyrdom in Islam does not begin with suicidal intention, let alone the linkage of that intention with the killing of non-combatants.

To justify suicide bombing under the banner of retaliation, or as a form of jihad, is therefore questionable, simply because it begins on an erroneous note, which goes against the essence both of just retaliation and justified jihad.

Compiled From:

"Shariah Law - An Introduction" - Mohammad Hashim Kamali, pp. 283-288


Friday, November 27, 2009

Ruling on Takbeer in Unison before the Eid prayer

Friday, November 27, 2009 - by IslamGreatReligion · - 0 Comments

Before the Eid prayer, the people recite dhikr in unison. Is this an innovation or is it is prescribed in the Eid prayer? If that is regarded as an innovation, what should we do? Should we leave the prayer place until the prayer begins?

Praise be to Allaah.

The takbeer of Eid is one of the Sunnahs that were prescribed by the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) and it is an act of worship like all other acts of worship: we should limit ourselves to what is narrated and it is not permissible to introduce any thing new into the way it is done; rather that which is narrated in the Sunnah and reports is sufficient.

Our fuqaha’ have examined the takbeer in unison that is done nowadays, and they did not find any evidence to support it, so they ruled that it is an innovation. That is because introducing a new act of worship or introducing a new manner in which an act of worship is done it is regarded as a blameworthy innovation and is included in the words of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him): “Whoever introduces anything into this matter of ours that is not part of it will have it rejected.” Narrated by Muslim (1718).

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

The takbeer which was done in al-Masjid al-Haraam on the day of Eid was where one person or a number of people would sit on the roof of Zamzam and say takbeer, and the people would repeat after them in the mosque. Then Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz denounced this way and said that it was an innovation. What the Shaykh meant was that it was a partial innovation when done in this particular manner. He did not mean that the takbeer itself was an innovation. Some of the common folk of Makkah were upset by that, because they were used to it, and this is the reason why he sent this message. With regard to doing the takbeer in this manner, I do not know of any basis for it. The one who claims that this way is prescribed in sharee’ah has to bring proof and evidence. Moreover, this is a minor issue that should not have reached the level it did. End quote.

Majmoo’ Fataawa al-‘Allaamah Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem, 3/127, 128

Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Praise be to Allah the Lord of the Worlds, and blessings and peace be upon Prophet Muhammad and all his family and Companions.

I have studied what was published by the respected Shaykh, Ahmad ibn Muhammad Jamaal (may Allah help him to do that which pleases Him) in one of the local newspapers, in which he says that he finds odd the ban on takbeer in unison in the mosque before the Eid prayer because it is regarded as an innovation which must be stopped. In his article, Shaykh Ahmad tries to prove that takbeer in unison is not an innovation and that it is not permissible to ban it, and his opinion is supported by some writers. Because of the fear that this matter may cause confusion for those who do not know the truth, we have to explain that the basic principle with regard to the takbeer on the night before Eid and before the Eid prayer of Eid al-Fitr after Ramadaan, and during the first ten days of Dhu’l-Hijjah, and on the days of al-Tashreeq, is that it is prescribed at these great times and that it has a great deal of virtue, because Allah says concerning the takbeer on Eid al-Fitr (interpretation of the meaning):

“(He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allaah [i.e. to say Takbeer (Allaahu Akbar: Allaah is the Most Great)] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him”

[al-Baqarah 2:185].

And He says about the first ten days of Dhu’l-Hijjah and the days of al-tashreeq (interpretation of the meaning):

“That they may witness things that are of benefit to them (i.e. reward of Hajj in the Hereafter, and also some worldly gain from trade), and mention the Name of Allaah on appointed days (i.e. 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th day of Dhul‑Hijjah), over the beast of cattle that He has provided for them (for sacrifice)”

[al-Hajj 22:28]

“And remember Allaah during the appointed Days”

[al-Baqarah 2:203].

What is included in the dhikr that is prescribed on these known days is both takbeer in general and specific takbeer, as is indicated by the Sunnah and the actions of the early Muslims (the salaf). The description of the takbeer that is prescribed is that each Muslim should say takbeer by himself on his own, raising his voice enough so that the people can hear him and follow his example and be reminded by it. As for the innovated takbeer in unison, that is when a group of people -- two or more -- raise their voices in saying takbeer together, so they start together and end together in unison and in a certain manner.

There is no basis for doing this and there is no evidence to support it, so it is an innovation in the manner of takbeer for which Allah has not sent down any authority. So the one who denounces takbeer done in this manner is in the right, because the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever introduces something into this matter of ours that is not part of it will have it rejected” (narrated by Muslim), i.e., it is rejected and is not prescribed. And he (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Beware of newly invented matters, for every newly invented matter is an innovation and every innovation is a going astray.” The takbeer in unison is a newly invented matter, so it is an innovation. If what the people do is contrary to sharee’ah then it must be stopped and denounced, because the acts of worship are tawqeefi (i.e., limited to what is mentioned in the Qur'aan and Sunnah) and nothing is prescribed therein except what is indicated by the Qur'aan and Sunnah. As for people's views and opinions, they cannot be taken as proof if they go against the shar’i evidence. Similarly acts of worship cannot be proven on the basis of al-masaalih al-mursalah (i.e., that which serves the interests of the Muslim community). Acts of worship can only be proven with a text from the Qur'aan or Sunnah, or definitive scholarly consensus.

What is prescribed is for each Muslim to say takbeer in the manner prescribed and proven according to the shar’i evidence, which is to say takbeer individually.

Takbeer in unison was denounced and banned by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem, the mufti of Saudi Arabia (may Allah have mercy on him), and he issued a fatwa concerning that. I have issued more than one fatwa stating that it is not allowed, and a fatwa stating that it is not allowed was also issued by the scholars of the Standing Committee for Academic Research and Issuing Fatwas.

Shaykh Hammood ibn ‘Abd-Allaah al-Tuwaijri (may Allah have mercy on him) wrote an important essay denouncing and banning it, which has been printed and is in circulation. In it he quotes sufficient evidence to show that takbeer in unison is not allowed, praise be to Allah. As for what our brother Shaykh Ahmad quoted about the actions of ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) and the people in Mina, this does not prove anything, because what he (may Allah be pleased with him) and the people did in Mina does not come under the heading of takbeer in unison; rather it comes under the heading of takbeer that is prescribed, because he (may Allah be pleased with him) raised his voice in takbeer in accordance with the Sunnah and so as to remind the people of it, so they said takbeer, each one on his own. This does not mean that they and ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) agreed to raised their voices in takbeer in unison from beginning to end, as those who say takbeer in unison do nowadays. Thus everything that is narrated from the righteous early generations (may Allah have mercy on them) about the takbeer was all done in the prescribed manner. Anyone who claims something other than that has to produce evidence. Similarly, the call to prayer for Eid prayer, Taraweeh, qiyaam or Witr is all innovation for which there is no basis. It is proven in the saheeh hadeeths from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) that he used to offer the Eid prayer with no adhaan or iqaamah, and as far as we know, none of the scholars said that there is a call with other words. The one who claims that has to establish proof. The basic principle is that there is no call to prayer in these cases. So it is not permissible for anyone to prescribe an act of worship, whether it involves words or actions, except with evidence from the Holy Qur'aan or the saheeh Sunnah or scholarly consensus -- as stated above -- because of the general meaning of the shar’i evidence which forbade innovation and warned against it, such as the verse in which Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Or have they partners with Allaah (false gods) who have instituted for them a religion which Allaah has not ordained?”

[al-Shoora 42:21].

This evidence also includes the two hadeeths mentioned above, such as that in which the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever introduces anything into this matter of ours that is not part of it will have it rejected.” Saheeh – agreed upon.

And he (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said in the Jumu’ah khutbah: “To proceed. The best of speech is the Book of Allah and the best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him). The worst of matters are those which are newly invented and every innovation is a going astray.” Narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh. And there are many similar hadeeths and reports.

And it is Allah whom we ask to guide us and Shaykh Ahmad and all our brothers to proper understanding of His religion and help us to remain steadfast in adhering to it, and to make us all callers to guidance and supporters of the truth, and to protect us and all the Muslims from everything that is contrary to His laws, for He is Most Generous. May Allah send blessings and peace upon our Prophet Muhammad and his family and Companions. End quote.

Majmoo’ Fataawa Ibn Baaz, 13/20-23

It says in Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 8/310:

Each person should say takbeer out loud, but there is no proof from the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) for reciting takbeer in unison. He said: “Whoever does an action that is not part of this matter of ours will have it rejected.”

It also says (8/311):

Reciting takbeer in unison is not prescribed; rather that is an innovation, because it is proven that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever introduces something into this matter of ours that is not part of it will have it rejected.” The righteous early generation (the salaf) did not do that, neither the Sahaabah nor the Taabi’een, nor those who followed them, and they are the example to be followed, and what is required is to follow and not innovate in matters of religion. End quote.

It also says (24/269):

# Takbeer in unison is an innovation, because there is no evidence for it, and the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever does an action that is not part of this matter of ours will have it rejected.” What ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) did is not evidence for reciting takbeer in unison; rather what ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) did was to say takbeer by himself, and when the people heard him they said takbeer, each one by himself. This does not indicate that they all said takbeer in unison.

It also says (2/236), volume 2:

# Reciting takbeer all together in unison after the prayer or at times other than prayer is not prescribed; rather it is an innovation that has been introduced into the religion. What is prescribed is to remember Allah a great deal, without reciting in unison, by reciting tahleel, tasbeeh and takbeer, reading Qur’aan, and asking a great deal for forgiveness, in obedience with the words of Allah (interpretation of the meaning):

“O you who believe! Remember Allaah with much remembrance.

42. And glorify His Praises morning and afternoon”

[al-Ahzaab 33:41-42]

“Therefore remember Me (by praying, glorifying). I will remember you”

[al-Baqarah 2:152];

and in obedience to what was encouraged by the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) when he said:

“To say Subhaan Allaah wa’l-hamdu Lillaah wa laa ilaaha ill-Allaah wa Allaahu akbar (Glory be to Allah, praise be to Allah, there is no God but Allah and Allah is most great) is dearer to me than everything on which the sun rises.” Narrated by Muslim. And he said: “Whoever says Subhaan Allaah wa bi hamdihi (Glory and praise be to Allah) one hundred times a day will have his sins forgiven, even if they are like the foam of the sea.” Narrated by Muslim and al-Tirmidhi.

And it is following the early generation of this ummah, as it is not narrated from them that they recited takbeer in unison; rather that was done by those who follow innovations and whims and desires. Moreover, dhikr is an act of worship, and the basic principle with regard to acts of worship is that it should be restricted to that which is enjoined by the Lawgiver, and the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) warned against innovations in religion and said: “Whoever introduces anything into this matter of ours that is not part of it will have it rejected.” End quote.

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